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Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC or α-GPC) is a cholinergic compound that is used for its cognitive-promoting properties, and to enhance power output in athletes. It appears to also support cellular membranes, and may aid in preventing cognitive decline.*
Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine. Alpha-GPC is a choline-containing supplement that, although found in a variety of food products that are also rich in choline, appears to be pharmacologically active at higher doses.
Laxogenin is a member of a group of 40 plant-based steroids, known as brassinosteroids, which may help support muscle growth, burn off excess fat, enhance physical performance, and support quick recovery.*
Laxogenin, known chemically as 5a-hydroxy laxogenin, is a member of a group of 40 plant-based steroids, known as brassinosteroids, which have a similar structure to animal steroid hormones. They attach only to the cell surface, which sets off a signal to increase muscle building to the inside of the cell, and activate a protein, known as AKT1 or protein kinase B, that enhances muscle building and prevents the breakdown of muscle. Supplementing laxogenin may, therefore, help support muscle building, thermogenesis, enhance physical performance, and support quick recovery from exercise when used in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise program.
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid sodium, more commonly referred to as TUDCA, is a bile salt that may protect against bile acid-induced cell damage and promote healthy liver and digestive function.*
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid sodium, more commonly referred to as TUDCA, is a bile salt that is naturally found in trace amounts in the human body. TUDCA and other water-soluble bile salts like UDCA act as detergents that compete with the toxicity of bile acids and thus indirectly protect cells from damage. Additionally, some studies have shown that TUDCA is able to reduce stress in a cell’s Endoplasmic Reticulum; an organelle in cells that serves as a highway from the nucleus out into the cytoplasm, and aids in folding proteins. Through reducing ER stress, TUDCA has been implicated in a wide range of beneficial metabolic effects such as reducing insulin resistance and protecting neurons.