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Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a form of L-Carnitine, an amino acid that is found in nearly all cells of the body that may help improve mood, learning and memory and increase energy levels.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) enhances the mitochondrial function and helps the mitochondria (the powerhouses of your cells) burn fat and create more energy — especially for the muscles and brain. It is readily formed in cells by the enzymatic addition of an acetyl group to Carnitine. Carnitine, also natural to the body, is a modified version of the amino acid Lysine. Enzymes can readily convert Carnitine to Acetyl-L-Carnitine and back, according to the metabolic needs of the cell. Thus, inside the cell, Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Carnitine are essentially interchangeable. The major difference between Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Carnitine is that Acetyl-L-Carnitine is more easily absorbed from the gut, and more readily crosses the blood-brain barrier.
Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC or α-GPC) is a cholinergic compound that is used for its cognitive-promoting properties, and to enhance power output in athletes. It appears to also support cellular membranes, and may aid in preventing cognitive decline.*
Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine. Alpha-GPC is a choline-containing supplement that, although found in a variety of food products that are also rich in choline, appears to be pharmacologically active at higher doses.
CDP Choline is an endogenous compound found in the cells of human and animal tissue and is believed to possess neuroprotective properties that help enhance memory, improve attention and focus and promote longevity.
CDP Choline (citicoline), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline or cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine is a nootropic compound which acts as an intermediary in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline, a common biochemical process in cell membranes. CDP Choline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, and especially within the cells that make their home in the brain (neurons). Studies suggest that CDP Choline possesses neuroprotective properties and helps enhance memory, improve attention and focus and promote longevity.
Curcumin is a biologically active polyphenolic compound found in turmeric that is known to possess properties that may support immune health, relieve pain, aid in digestion, and fights inflammation and oxidation agents.
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), also called diferuloylmethane, is the main natural polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric). It is the principal curcuminoid of turmeric, a member of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Curcumin incorporates several functional groups whose structure was first identified in 1910. The aromatic ring systems, which are phenols, are connected by two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups. The diketones form stable enols and are readily deprotonated to form enolates; the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group is a good Michael acceptor and undergoes nucleophilic addition.
Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid which comes from the purified extract of the Japanese Raisin Tree and is believed to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective properties.
Dihydromyricetin (DHM), also known as Ampelopsin has been used for centuries in preventing intoxication and hangover in Korean and Chinese traditional medicine. DHM works by activating the two enzymes; alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) — which help the body break down and metabolize alcohol faster.
Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound and a cholinesterase inhibitor extracted from club moss that may contain properties that helps enhance memory and learning, increase in alertness and energy levels and promote longevity.
Huperzine A acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor and prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine, one of the chemicals that our nerves use to communicate in the brain, muscles, and other areas. Some studies suggest that Huperzine A may be used for memory and learning enhancement, age-related memory impairment and it may also help in increasing alertness and energy levels, provide protection against agents that damage the nerves such as nerve gases, and it has antioxidant properties that help promote longevity.
L-Theanine is a highly bioavailable non-essential amide bioactive amino acids which can help maintain normal sleep, improve memory function and nullify effect of neurotoxins.
L-Theanine also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species. L-Theanine increases serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and glycine levels in various areas of the brain, as well as BDNF and NGF levels in certain brain areas. It has also been found that injecting spontaneously hypertensive mice with L-Theanine significantly lowered levels of 5-hydroxyindoles in the brain. Researchers also speculate that it may inhibit glutamate excitotoxicity.
N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid L-Cysteine which is found in most high-protein foods and is known to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, respiratory and neuroprotective properties. N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) is the supplement form of the amino acid cysteine which is found in most high-protein foods, such as chicken, turkey, yogurt, cheese, eggs, sunflower seeds, legumes and onion. The compound facilitates essential biological functions by bonding with two other amino acids—glutamine and glycine—to create a powerful antioxidant known as glutathione. NAC, being a precursor to glutathione have been found to bind to the glutamate recognition site of the NMDA and AMPA receptors and may act as endogenous neuromodulators. Clinical studies suggest that NAC possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, respiratory and neuroprotective properties.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) is derived from L-Tyrosine, an amino acid that helps the body produce neurotransmitters, which promote mental alertness and regulate mood.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) is an acetylated form of the amino acid L-Tyrosine and is believed to have nootropic effects that helps increase attention, motivation, concentration, and improves memory and learning. Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. It can also be found in dairy products, cheese, meats, fish, eggs, nuts, beans, oats, and wheat and other high-protein foods. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine supports brain function by supporting the synthesis of the catecholamines (neurotransmitters).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a cofactor found in all living cells, supplementation of which may increase longevity, protect neurons and support healthy aging.*
NAD+ is a crucial component of the basic biological processes that make life possible, such as converting nutrients into energy at the cellular level and working as a helper molecule for proteins that control other biological activities. Maintaining and supporting these processes is extremely important to human life because they are responsible for efficient cellular metabolism, reducing oxidative stress, and maintaining the healthy propagation of DNA to keep humans healthy longer. NAD+ levels in the human body naturally decrease with age, possibly causing premature cellular damage and negatively affecting metabolic health. Fortunately, supplementation has been shown to be effective at raising the levels of NAD+ in the human body.
Nicotinamide mononucleotide, or NMN, is a nucleotide that acts as a precursor to NAD+, a coenzyme which may increase longevity, protect neurons from age-related diseases, and support healthy aging.*
Like nicotinamide riboside (NR), NMN is a derivative of niacin, and humans have enzymes that can use NMN to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule. NAD+ is a crucial component of the basic biological processes that make life possible, processes that are responsible for efficient cellular metabolism, reducing oxidative stress, and maintaining the healthy propagation of DNA to keep humans healthy longer. NAD+ levels in the human body naturally decrease with age, possibly causing premature cellular damage and negatively affecting metabolic health. Fortunately, NMN supplementation has been shown to be effective at raising the levels of NAD+ in the human body.
Nicotinamide riboside, or niagen, is an alternative form of vitamin B3 that acts as a precursor to NAD+, a coenzyme which may increase longevity, protect neurons from age-related diseases, and support healthy aging.*
Nicotinamide riboside, or niagen, is an alternative form of vitamin B3, also called niacin. Like other forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide riboside is converted by the human body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule. NAD+ is a crucial component of the basic biological processes that make life possible. These processes are extremely important to human life because they are responsible for efficient cellular metabolism, reducing oxidative stress, and maintaining the healthy propagation of DNA to keep humans healthy longer.
Palmitoylethanolamide or PEA is an endogenous fatty acid amide produced in our body, and in animals and plants and is known to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive (antipain) and anti-convulsant properties.
Palmitoylethanolamide or PEA is an endogenous fatty acid amide, belonging to a class of nuclear factor agonists. PEA inhibits FAAH, the enzyme that breaks down cannabinoids, thus activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in cell nuclei of both dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and glial cells. It has been demonstrated to bind to a receptor in the cell-nucleus and exerts a great variety of biological functions related to chronic pain and inflammation.
Pterostilbene is a highly bioavailable stilbenoid, or a natural compound found in several fruits and nuts that may act as an antioxidant, promote cardiovascular health, and increase longevity.*
Pterostilbene is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants (including grapes, raspberries, and peanuts) in response to injury or disease. Due to its unique structure pterostilbene may enjoy better bioavailability following oral ingestion than other similar compounds and may be a more potent antioxidant and anticancer molecule. Studies suggest pterostilbene may act as an antioxidant, sirtuin upregulator, and longevity promoter.
Rexatrol is a highly bioavailable form of resveratrol, a natural compound best known for its presence in red wine that may act as an antioxidant, promote cardiovascular health, and increase longevity.*
Resveratrol is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants (including grapes, raspberries, and peanuts) in response to injury or disease. Rexatrol is a highly bioavailable phytosome form of resveratrol, providing over four times the efficacy of standard resveratrol in the human metabolism. Studies suggest Rexatrol and resveratrol act as an antioxidant, sirtuin upregulator, and longevity promoter.
Theacrine is a naturally occurring purine alkaloid found in Kucha tea plant as well as in the seeds of the Herrania and Theocrama plant species. It acts as an adenosine inhibitor, helps aid concentration and coordination and it contains anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that promote longevity.
Theacrine, also known as 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid, is a naturally occurring chemical which has a similar structure to caffeine. Molecular studies suggest that it activates similar receptors and signaling pathways. It has been used traditionally to prolong life and cure the common cold. Studies suggest that theacrine may increase mental clarity, boost energy, and improve mood and motivation.
Uridine Monophosphate Disodium is a pyrimidine nucleoside found in the cells of almost all living organisms and is believed to help improve mood and energy levels, enhance memory and learning and promote longevity.
Uridine monophosphate is a primary building block for the synthesis of neurons and synapses formed by decarboxylation of orotidine 5’-monophosphate catalyzed by the enzyme orotidylate decarboxylase. The food sources of uridine include beer, breastmilk, offal (liver and pancreas), barley, baker’s yeast, sugar cane extract, and vegetables. It is characterized as a pyrimidine nucleoside and is found in cells of almost all living organisms including bacteria.
Vincamine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) or periwinkle. Studies indicate that vincamine increases the regional cerebral blood flow.
It has been used therapeutically as a vasodilator and antihypertensive agent, particularly in cerebrovascular disorders. It is also a PDE1 inhibitor, which is a mechanism that is both cardioprotective and cognitive enhancing.
S-Acetyl L-Glutathione (SALG) is a bioavailable form of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that may promote longevity, ease aging, and support general cellular health.*
S-Acetyl L-Glutathione (SALG) is a bioavailable version of glutathione, which is a peptide (small amino-acid containing molecule) that acts as an antioxidant. It is produced endogenously in the human body and can also be found in the food supply. The ‘glutathione system’ comprises the enzymes that synthesize glutathione within a cell as well as dedicated enzymes that use glutathione as the means to exert antioxidant effects. Supplementation of bioavailable glutathione is thought to support this pool of glutathione in a cell and thus maintain the efficacy of the entire glutathione system.
TUDCA Acid is an orally bioavailable and effective inhibitor of apoptosis by exhibiting antioxidant properties, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, and preventing cytochrome c release.
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, more commonly referred to as TUDCA, is a bile salt that is found naturally occurring in the body. When regular bile salts reach the intestines, they can be metabolized by bacteria into UDCA and then later bound to a taurine molecule to become TUDCA. TUDCA is able to reduce stress to any cell’s Endoplasmic Reticulum; an organelle in cells that serves as a highway from the nucleus out into the cytoplasm, and aids in folding proteins. Through reducing ER stress, TUDCA has been implicated in a wide range of beneficial metabolic effects such as reducing insulin resistance and diabetes, being a neurological protection agent and has been used for conditions called liver cholestasis.